The sector of making confectionaries (ψιλικα ), like several various other industries, has altered considerably recently. Although the standard formulations have undertaken minor changes, the production technologies have actually changed substantially (this uses especially to the techniques of creating tiny items and floor tiles, along with their product packaging).
At the beginning of this phase, it seems appropriate to mention only these modifications, but extra on those later applied to certain recipes.
Different teams of confectionery products need details molding approaches to make sure that they can be covered and also packaged in the most suitable method available. Most likely one of the most successful development was the pastry bar. These bars enable you to use affordable techniques of manufacturing, product packaging and display screen at the point of sale.
At the same time, there were recognizable improvements in the packaging – both in the materials utilized and also in the sealing approaches. Most of the bars in order to make certain long shelf life, to secure against insect damage as well as contamination require protective packaging. We consider these consider different chapters.
We have actually already taken into consideration the manufacturing of chocolate, and also as a result it is clear that delicious chocolate as well as complex lusters have a mainly fatty basis, their dampness web content is extremely low (normally less than 1%), and also the ingredients are not in aqueous option.
In lots of confectionery processes, the dissolving capability of sugar (sucrose) is thought about separately or in combination with various other sugars, such as glucose syrup (corn syrup) and invert sugar. There are two primary groups of sugar confectionery items: a) products in which sugar is completely dissolved, and also b) items in which sugar is partly liquified, and partly existing in the form of little solid crystals put on hold in solution. These items may be modified with various other components (for instance, milk and also fats). The very first group consists of hard candy, hard and also soft milk desserts, toffee and most jelly sweets. The second team consists of products such as fudge, fudge (fudge), marshmallows and nougat with a pronounced fine-crystalline structure.
Review confectionery production innovations
Below we will see that all the range of structures obtained is a result of using various technological procedures and solutions, every one of which call for special methods for the development of specific items. Below we check out basic innovation issues, as well as see their particular uses in other sections of this publication.
Smearing and also cutting
The device is equipped with cooled down rolls, which enable you to feed the product straight from the gadget, where it is prepared, to the plate forming devices. After molding and lamination, home plates are fed to a cooling tool, and then to traditional reducing tools and also spreaders. Then the products are polished.
Фирма SOLLICH GmbH, г. Бад-Зальцуфлен, Германия.
This is possibly the earliest technique of generating bars (floor tiles) and private items from plastic items such as fudge, nougat and numerous pastes. A confectionery product in an appropriate plastic state, identified by its moisture, fat content or temperature, is first fed to the rolls to obtain a plate of the required thickness. This plate is then fed to cutting tools to create wide strips, which are after that cut into narrow floor tiles or bars. Currently, the hot item is fed to cooled rolls, allowing to acquire multilayer plates. Home plates are continually cut into strips that travel through the (” spreading out equipment)” spreader “, after which the strips are cut into bars or tiny items. An instance of such a procedure is the Sollich Conjug system (Fig. 19.1).
Casting or otsadka
This approach is utilized for the manufacturing of sweets, fondant and jelly sweets, some sorts of milk sweets and fudge, marshmallows and other items that can be acquired in liquid kind.
Some items in fluid form might be formed at a temperature of concerning 150 ° C in a steel mold and mildew whose surface area is covered with a “lubricant”.
Pomadnye, želejnye candy, maršmellou.
These products are usually cast into cells formed in starch (see below the section “Fondant coverings”). A more recent development is the automatic precipitation and extraction of fondant shells and a few other confectionery products using metal molds (Cadbury-Baker Perkins), as well as the rainfall of sugar as well as toffee right into silicone mold and mildews (Baker Perkins). Silicone is a non-tacky product that has one-of-a-kind buildings and also is resistant to reasonably high temperatures, typical for the production of caramel confectionery.
This approach applies nearly exclusively to sweet caramel and also some types of toffee. The common flavorful candies, desserts with a filler as well as “toffee” are made.
The production principle is to cool the brewed syrup under regulated problems up until it gets to a ductile state. In this state, the item is changed into a kind of rope, fed to the stamps, on which the ended up products (generally of a certain shape or with a pattern) are gotten from it. The resulting items are immediately sent out to the cooling cupboard as well as wrapping machine.
To acquire some types of sugar and also chewy sweets, a version of this approach is utilized, in which the harness acquired in a similar means is fed to a cutting-wrapping maker, where with the help of high-speed round knives, small items are reduced from it that involved the wrapping machine.
Extrusion and also molding bars.
The principle of extrusion, executed in the production of lots of non-food products, has been effectively applied in the confectionery sector. The application of this process to the manufacturing of different items– from soft materials such as marshmallows and fondant sugary foods to really plastic nougat as well as milk delicious chocolates– is defined in  In this situation, the material subjected to extrusion is fed to the outlet nozzles with the help of numerous rolls or augers. The nozzle hole profile figures out the shape of the end product, and lots of extruders are furnished with a number of nozzles that develop harnesses that can be cut into bars or tiny pieces. In fig. 19.2 programs various rolls for extruders, and also fig. 19.3 is a Wemer-Lehara extruder sample with a device for cutting off little pieces from the hairs. In fig. 19.4 shows the design of the Weisert-Loser extruder for the extrusion of eating gum tissue and eating sweet.
The style of the NID bar extruder is a little various. The feeding is carried out by grooved rollers similarly as in other extruders, however the material to be created is fed to a 2nd profile roller. The profiled surface of the roll is coated with fluoroplastic to make sure simple separation of the product and is utilized to shape benches into the called for form. The pins help eliminate the harnesses onto the conveyor belt.
It is feasible to make multi-layer bars in which two layers are squeezed out at the same time, or bars with a body from an additional confectionery item. Extrusion functions well with various other continual production and glazing techniques.
When extrusion confectionery must observe particular precautions.
Temperature level. The extrusion temperature level is of basic relevance, particularly when it comes to milk candy and also nougat, the uniformity of which is very depending on temperature level. Little variations in temperature can cause big adjustments in extrusion pressure. For soft milk desserts, a temperature of 35 to 38 ° C is generally utilized, yet much relies on the kind of item, and also the exact temperature level.
Excursion conditions should be identified empirically. Low temperatures as well as high pressures create ko of extruder safety plugs.
Separation of fat … If fat divides throughout extrusion, this is a sign of inadequate emulsification. Improvement is achieved when an emulsifier (eg lecithin or glyceryl monostearate) is included in the formulation.
Destruction after extrusion … After extrusion, some products shed their form, and the strip, which is nearly round in cross-section, after a short time on the strip might come to be noticeably flatter. This is because of numerous reasons:.
too high a moisture web content;.
It was not emulsified fat and also might be as well soft;.
the healthy protein of any dairy products active ingredient is not effectively dispersed;.
in fudge or pastes, no crystalline structure has created or has been damaged by excessive stirring after crystal formation. This issue can be very subtle, as well as in constant fudge production, its look depends on the moment the taking shape lipstick is added prior to extrusion. It is possible to establish the optimum conditions for a specific tools only experimentally. Firms concentrating on the manufacturing of extrusion devices have actually performed a large amount of research study in the layout of equipments for the extrusion of confectionery items of numerous consistencies. For some products – such as gummies as well as chewing periodontal – the roll extruder is giving way to a multi-cavity screw (worm) extruder. These modern technologies are explained in various other sections of guide.
The principle of panning is currently explained in Phase 5. There are 2 types of sugar rolling – difficult and also loosened. With hard knurling, succeeding layers of powdered sugar as well as syrup are accumulated on the wanted body (as an example, nuts) and also dried out with warm air passing away between the used layers. Loosened knurling is carried out in a similar way, but making use of chilly innovation. Soft shells are used (for example, pasta, jelly, soft milk filling up), and also the finish is constructed from sugar (or glucose) syrup as well as powdered sugar. After getting to the preferred dimension and weight of the coating, the candies are partially dried and also covered with glaze. The process is fully mechanized, consisting of loading as well as dumping the storage tanks, automatic spraying of syrups (or delicious chocolate), as well as control of drying or cooling air to the tanks.
Confectionery lipstick made from sugar, glucose or corn syrup and invert sugar is normally denoted in English by the word “creme” (cream), yet some conventional items make use of the choice “cream”, and in different countries it is called differently.
The fondant is prepared by liquifying sugar and sugar syrup (or invert sugar) in water and focusing by boiling to a service consisting of concerning 88% DM. At ambient temperature, this solution is supersaturated with sugar and also unsteady, and if it is quickly mixed and also cooled, then the excess sugar befalls of the remedy in the form of little crystals. Therefore, the fondant mass has a strong stage of sugar crystals put on hold in a fluid phase including a saturated solution of “sugars”.
Without mixing and cooling down large crystals are developed. Beating in itself offers poor outcomes, since a big amount of latent heat of formation is launched. If the whipped syrup is left hot, crystallization reduces as well as subsequent slow-moving cooling results in the formation of large crystals. Fondant of high quality must be soft in consistency.
Initially, lipstick was prepared utilizing just sugar, which was dissolved in water as well as concentrated by steaming to about the degree of 88-90% ST. Considering that the solubility of sugar at typical temperature levels is only 67%, the syrup with a focus of 90% is very unpredictable as well as takes shape upon quick air conditioning, “providing” very large crystals.
To overcome this downside, an additive was used that created the inversion of a part of the sugar and enhanced the general solubility – this made it feasible to whip the syrup into a fondant mass. Citric or tartaric acids or, more preferably, tartar (tartaric acid) are used as such ingredients. The formation of invert sugar from sugar is reviewed in an additional chapter, however below we just note that such ingredients decay part of the sugar (sucrose), which is chemically a disaccharide, right into 2 monosaccharides, dextrose (sugar) and also fructose. Fructose is a lot more soluble (regarding 80% at 20 ° C) than sucrose, and also its visibility with dextrose allows the concentrated syrup to be whipped into a lipstick.
This technique of application of the additive is really unreliable, considering that the quantity of invert sugar formed differs significantly depending on the purity of the sugar, the boiling time and the hardness of the water made use of. Ideal results are obtained by adding to the sugar syrup a particular quantity of invert sugar, prepared individually.
Lipstick, made from sugar as well as invert sugar, has a granular structure as well as is extremely sweet in preference (it is hardly ever used in contemporary confectionery production). Glucose (corn) syrup has replaced invert sugar in lipstick formulations; it is less wonderful, and also the presence of complex carbs controls the development of crystals and also offers a much more viscous lipstick, which does not have a loosened (brittle) structure.